Marburg virus outbreak in Ghana: What it is? Is it so dangerous?

Marburg virus Symptoms

Haemorrhagic fever is a symptom of the highly virulent Marburg virus disease. It belongs to the same family as the Ebola virus family of pathogens. The disease was first identified in 1967 as a result of two significant epidemics that happened concurrently in Marburg, Frankfurt, and Belgrade, Serbia, as well as in Germany and Germany. Let’s see Marburg virus Symptoms.

What is the Marburg virus?

The Marburg virus illness. The virus that causes Ebola hemorrhagic fever also causes Marburg hemorrhagic fever, a serious and frequently fatal illness.

Despite both diseases being uncommon, they have the potential to have deadly outbreaks. There might not be a single medicine or vaccine available right now.

Both humans and non-human primates can be afflicted by the uncommon but severe hemorrhagic fever known as Marburg virus disease (MVD). The Marburg virus, a genetically distinct zoonotic (or, animal-borne) RNA virus of the filovirus family, is the culprit behind MVD. The only other known members of the filovirus family are the six different species of the Ebola virus.

In Africa, MVD mainly occurs in periodic outbreaks. Male mine workers in bat-infested mines were the source of several outbreaks. Through cultural customs, inadequately safeguarded family care settings, and unprotected medical personnel, the virus eventually spreads among their communities. It’s possible that isolated, infrequent incidents also happen but go unnoticed.

Although rare, MVD cases in humans have been reported outside of Africa, including during the 1967 outbreak.

Marburg virus Symptoms

The Marburg virus causes sudden onset illness characterised by a high fever, excruciating headaches, and excruciating malaise. A common aspect is aches and pains in the muscles.

On the third day, severe watery diarrhoea, cramps and pain in the abdomen, nausea, and vomiting are all possible. A week can go by with diarrhoea.

Patients at this stage have been described as having drawn features that are “ghost-like,” deep-set eyes, expressionless faces, and profound lethargy. Between 2 and 7 days following the start of symptoms, a non-itchy rash has been seen.

Within a week, many patients experience severe hemorrhagic symptoms, and in fatal instances, bleeding is typically present, frequently in many locations. Bleeding from the nose, gums, and vagina frequently accompany fresh blood in vomitus and faeces.

At the sites of venepuncture (where intravenous access is established to administer fluids or draw blood samples), spontaneous bleeding can be particularly problematic. Patients have experienced persistently high fevers during the acute stage of the illness.

Confusion, impatience, and violence might result from central nervous system involvement. There have been few reports of orchitis (testicular inflammation) in the late stage (15 days).

In fatal cases, death typically happens 8 to 9 days after commencement, frequently followed by significant blood loss and shock.

Marburg virus mortality ratio

Marburg virus sickness is a highly contagious infection that produces hemorrhagic fever and has a death rate of up to 88%. It belongs to the same family as the Ebola virus family of pathogens.

Marburg has the potential to be exceedingly dangerous and fatal: In previous epidemics, case mortality rates have ranged from 24 to 88 percent.

Is it so dangerous

Long-term contact with mines or caverns where Rousettus bat colonies are present causes human infection with the Marburg virus disease.

After becoming infected, a person can contract the Marburg virus from another person by coming into direct contact (through cuts in the skin or ruptured mucous membranes) with the blood, secretions, organs, or other bodily fluids of an infected person, as well as by coming into contact with contaminated surfaces and materials (like bedding and clothing).

Treatment

Survival is increased with supportive care, which includes treating specific symptoms and rehydrating patients with oral or intravenous fluids. For the Marburg virus sickness, there is currently no effective treatment.

But a variety of prospective treatments, including immunotherapies, pharmacological therapies, and blood products, are now being examined.

Clinically separating Marburg virus disease (MVD) from other infectious disorders such shigellosis, meningitis, typhoid fever, and other viral hemorrhagic fevers can be challenging.

The following diagnostic techniques are used to confirm that symptoms are brought on by a Marburg virus infection:

  • enzyme-linked immunosorbent test (ELISA) for antibodies.
  • tests for antigen detection.
  • testing for serum neutralisation.
  • RT-PCR assay, which stands for reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.
  • cell culture virus isolation.

Patients’ samples pose a serious biohazard risk, hence laboratory testing on non-inactivated samples must be done under the strictest biological containment measures. The triple packaging strategy must be used to transport all biological samples both domestically and internationally.

The Marburg virus sickness does not have a particular therapy. It is important to use supportive hospital therapy, which includes managing the patient’s fluid and electrolyte balance, preserving blood pressure and oxygen levels, restoring lost blood and clotting components, and treating any exacerbating infections.

Treatments that have never been attempted on people have been proven effective in non-human primate models.

Precautions

Since research on the transmission of the Marburg virus from wildlife to humans is still underway, prevention strategies against infection are not well established.

But one method to guard against infection is to stay away from sick non-human primates and fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus).

Similar to those employed for other hemorrhagic fevers, secondary, or person-to-person, transmission prevention measures are available. Direct physical contact with a patient should be avoided if they have Marburg virus disease (MVD), whether they are suspected of having it or have been diagnosed with it.

These safety measures include putting on protective clothing, gloves, and masks; isolating the infected person; and sterilising or disposing of needles, tools, and patient waste.

A extremely uncommon form of human disease is MVD. However, when it does, there is a chance that it will spread to other people, particularly medical professionals and the patient’s family.

It is essential to raise awareness of the clinical symptoms experienced by patients with MVD among both the general public and healthcare professionals. Increased knowledge may enable family members and healthcare professionals to take early and more effective steps to prevent the spread of the Marburg virus.

Another priority is enhancing the use of diagnostic tools. It is now possible to quickly test samples at disease control facilities with Biosafety Level 4 laboratories to confirm or rule out Marburg virus infection thanks to contemporary transportation methods that allow access to even remote areas.

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